January 13, 2022

The cost of stratospheric aerosol injection through 2100

Published: October 2020 by Environmental Research Letters

Summary: A follow up to the 2018 paper wherein the aeronautical tactics and costs required to implement a hypothetical stratospheric aerosol injection program are calculated through the end of the century to give a more complete picture of costs.  A range of emissions pathways is considered, as is a range of cooling targets, such that a spectrum of possible program sizes may be evaluated.

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Wake Smith

Author, Lecturer, Geoengineering Researcher

As a lecturer at Yale University, Wake Smith teaches a world-leading undergraduate course on climate intervention, the syllabus of which forms the basis of this book. Smith is also a Senior Fellow at the Mossavar-Rahmani Center for Business and Government at Harvard Kennedy School, writing scholarly articles on the aeronautics, costs, and governance of solar geoengineering. Prior to his academic career, Smith served in several executive roles in the commercial aviation industry, including as the President of the flight training division of Boeing and the COO of Atlas Air. He is a graduate of Yale College and Harvard Business School.

About Wake


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